Pipeline is a long conduit that is used to transport material or goods usually gas, water or petroleum products. A pipe transports effluents such as oil by pipeline is more economical compared to other means such as road or rail.
How pipelines work ?
Any substance that is chemically stable can be transported through a pipe. Pipelines are usually placed about 3 to 6 feet deep. Pipelines can also be built under the sea, this is, however, more technical compared to building on the ground.
Pump stations are placed along the pipeline for the purpose of pumping the substance being transported. Instruments known as field devices are usually placed along the pipeline to measure relevant data such as pressure and temperature. The pipelines are controlled remotely from the main control room.
Construction of pipelines
Pipelines are constructed differently according to what is being transported. Pipelines used to transport oil are made of steel tubes with a diameter of about 4 to 48 inches.
For natural gas, the diameter is usually about 2 to 60 inches and made from carbon steel, or alloyed steel. Safety is a priority when constructing pipelines; the material used to construct the pipeline has to be strong enough to hold pressure of liquids and gases being transported.